Tag Archives: G2

Early September Aurora Lights Up The Sky

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Northern Lights Now – A long duration geomagnetic display gave aurora hunters a treat on the first three nights of September. Space weather conditions, under the influence of a large coronal hole on the Sun, were favorable for aurora borealis from late August 31st through September 3rd. KP reached G2 (moderate) storming levels for four 3-hour periods during that time. Strong storming is expected to continue for another 6-12 hours

Storm Origins

September’s solar storm was caused by strong solar wind buffeting Earth. The solar wind is the stream of charged particles constantly flow outward from the Sun into the Solar System. At Earth, that stream travels at about 350-400 km/s under normal conditions. This weekend it has been flowing at 600-750 km/s. The magnetic fields of those particles interact with, and push on, the magnetic fields of Earth. Solar wind becomes enhanced as the result of CMEs or when coronal holes are pointed towards Earth.

The current enhanced solar winds are from a very large coronal hole in the northern hemisphere of the sun. It is visible as the dark area from AIA211 images taken by the SDO satellite:

Large Coronal hole pointed towards Earth on August 31st
Large Coronal hole pointed towards Earth on August 31st

Long durations

Also visible in the above photograph is the longitudinal extent of the hole. As the Sun rotates, it takes about 14 days for a feature to move from the east lime (left side) to the west limb, the different portions of the hole are pointed towards earth. The longer portions of the hole are pointed towards Earth, the longer high solar wind speeds will impact earth and the longer the potential storm is. In today’s DSCOVR solar wind chart, notice that wind speeds have now been above 500km/s for over 48 hours, and above 650 km/s for over 6 hours:

Solar wind speeds have been strong for over two days
Solar wind speeds have been strong for over two days

The result of that long duration wind stream has been an epic solar storm. Over the last three days there have been four 3-hour periods where Boulder KP readings exceeded G2 storm levels, nine periods exceeded G1 levels and just 4 periods of KP less than three.

Three days of extrodinary aurora storming as measured by SWPC in Boulder Co.
Three days of extrodinary aurora storming as measured by SWPC in Boulder Co.

The Good Stuff

Below find several of our favorite tweets of pictures from this storm

A back of cam pic from the beginning of the storm in Finland:

The next night in Wisconsin:


This Full sky display from over Lake Superior:

And of course, this author went out hunting in Colchester VT because we had clear skies:

More To Come

The official forecast shows this storm slowly decreasing in strength over the next 6-12 hours. There is still plenty of possibility for yet another night of display for Europe and the Eastern half of N. America. As long as wind speeds main enhanced, any disturbance traveling on the high speed wind stream could set off another substorm.

Happy Hunting

G2 Aurora to Start September 2016

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Northern Lights Now – A widespread aurora display delighted viewers across northern Europe and North America on September 1st and 2nd. Kp values, a global measure of aurora activity, reached G2 storm levels. Northern lights were visible in Denmark, Maine, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, and across Canada.

Here are some highlights from Twitter, check back tomorrow for a more detailed storm recap:

Over Lake Superior

In New Hampshire:

In Denmark:

And By Northern Lights Now!

Happy Hunting!

August 2nd & 3rd Solar Storm Live Blog

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Northern Lights Now – SWPC has posted a G2 storm watch for August 2nd and a G1 storm watch for August 3rd. NLN will keep a live blog of the storm as it unfolds here.

Update 8/4 2:30 UTC (10:30pm EST)

A quick recap: The big winners for aurora photography in this storm were the Northern states west of the Great Lakes and Canada, New Zealand and Tasmania. Denmark was also in the sweet spot at the very beginning of the storm when the initial CME arrived. There were a couple pictures of faint pillars in ME, NH and VT as well.

Solar wind never quite reached the high levels expected in the prediction. The helps explain why the storming started a little later than predicted also – if the wind is moving slower, it takes longer to travel from the Sun to Earth. In the end there were four periods of G1 storming recorded.

Thanks for following along for this storm!

This solar storm is done, in total 4 periods of G1, and 4 periods of KP=4. 24 hours total.
This solar storm is done, in total 4 periods of G1, and 4 periods of KP=4. 24 hours total.

Update 8/3 16:30 UTC (12:30pm EST)

The storm seem be dying down. Solar wind speeds have picked up, but they did not reach the predicted 600+ km/s. Here’s a create timelapse video from overnight from Robert Snache (@spirithands)

Update 8/3 11:00 UTC (7:00am EST)

So many wonderful pictures overnight. There were 3 periods of G1 recorded, and it appears there is a 4th happening now. There is an outside chance that the current period will reach G2. Here are a couple tweet with aurora pictures the we’ve seen overnight:

Back of cam:

Angel Brise finds some gems on webcams:

In Regina:

Neil Zeller:

Update 8/3 04:45 UTC (12:45am EST)

Starting about an hour ago, Bz dipped back south. Bt is still very strong, so this may be enough to produce some more pillars in the mid-latitudes. Aurora hunters will still probably need long exposures to get a good view. KP=5.33 (G1) in 20 minutes. Here’s a look at the boulder KP 3-hour averages so far – notice that storming didn’t technically reach G2 levels during the last substorm:

Two periods of storming so far in this solar storm
Two periods of storming so far in this solar storm

Update 8/2 23:00 UTC (7:00pm EST)

G2 storming is now predicted by the Wing-KP model. KP=6 shortly! This is almost exactly when the initial forecasts indicated we might see G2 storming. The strong solar wind hasn’t really picked up yet – wind speeds have only just touched 450 km/s.

Wing-KP shows KP=6 soon on August 2
Wing-KP shows KP=6 soon on August 2

Bz shifted to the north, so NLN is expecting this storm to be short lived. Good luck. Hopefully there will be more later tonight

Update 8/2 22:30 UTC (6:30pm EST)

First aurora picture of the night! This tweet shows a photo from Denmark by Twitter follower @ADphotography24

Update 8/2 21:45 UTC (5:45pm EST)

Around 8:00am UTC Bz made a decisive shift to the south. This should be good for aurora hunters and we expect to see some pictures coming in soon. We also expect the wing-KP models to reflect this aurora within the next 2-3 hrs.

Update 8/2 06:30 UPC (2:30am EST)

The first hints of the expected solar storm from the filament eruption appear to be arriving. Solar wind, density and Bt/Bz all reflected the shocks impact. The shock was weaker than expected, but also a little earlier than expected. We’re not really expecting any aurora yet, still plenty of hours ahead for a show.

Initial CME arrives around 04:00 UTC on August 2
Initial CME arrives around 04:00 UTC on August 2