Category Archives: Timelapse Video

Pair of Filament eruptions May produce Aurora April 10th and 11th

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Northern Lights Now – A pair of filament eruptions on April 6th likely produced CMEs that will impact Earth on April 10th and 11th, producing aurora. The first filament was about 15 degrees long along a NE-SW, with the SW terminus just to the NE of Active Region 2528. The eruption produced a wide arching and looping structure. Structures like these are often correlated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that have a “slinky” or coiled structure. The second, smaller filament, erupted from the southern hemisphere of the solar disk in Earth strike zone. If it did produce a CME, will likely be directed towards Earth. The two eruptions together mean there is an increased likelihood of aurora on April 10-11 as the solarstorms arrive.

In this animatedGIF (also shared on the NLN Twitter Account), watch the first filament eruption. Note the wide spread between the east and west side, and the apparent arcing between the two sides – particularly on the southern extent. The large bright area on at the southern end is active region 2528 (Beta). Towards the end of the loop, the launching Plasma material can be seen. It’s trajectory actually looks to be mosly to the North and West of the Earth-Sun line. If this storm does arrive at Earth, it will likely be a glancing blow. It is possible that additional material launched from the Eastern (right) side of the filament may not be visible in the imagery and directed towards Earth. LASCO imagary, coming available over the next 12 hours should confirm the extent and direction of the CME. Click either of the two video below for a zoomed in view.

Animated GIF shows First of two filament eruptions that produced CMEs that may impact Earth April 10 an 11.
Animated GIF shows First of two filament eruptions that produced CMEs that may impact Earth April 10 an 11.

The second eruption was much faster. The video below is taken from the last 3 hours of the same full-disk video as the one above. It is zoomed in to the central southern hemisphere of the visible disk and slowed to about half the speed. This is a fast eruption. Notice the dark area at the beginning of the clip, the eruption happens just to the north of this. It is a faint East to West wisp of plasma that lifts off temporarily hiding the dark area behind it. The eruption is in the Earth strike zone so, even though it is smaller, may have more impact on Earth than the second eruption.

The second of two related filament eruptions that may impact Earth April 10 and 11.
The second of two related filament eruptions that may impact Earth April 10 and 11.

Stay tuned to NLN for more updates on these two solar storms.

Happy Hunting!

Several Interesting Features on the Sun As March Closes

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Update: 00:30 3/31/2016 GMT (8:30 EST)

SWPC has now issued a G1 geomagnetic storm watch for Saturday April 2nd.

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Northern Lights Now – As March draws to a close, there are a couple areas on the Solar disk with notable activity. On Sunday, a stunning solar prominence on the East limb produced a show in SDO imagery. Today, an active region that grew from alpha to beta and is now pointed straight at Earth and located between two coronal holes. Both coronal holes are in negative polarity regions and are related to coronal holes that produced negative Bz and aurora during their previous rotation. It’s possible this could happen again, but likley to a lesser degree on the current rotation.

A prominence

A solar prominence happens when a large area of gas and charged particles lifts off the Sun into the corona. Prominences are visible in the 304 Angstrom images available on the SDO website. When they happen on the limb they are spectacular, as the dark sky of space acts as a backdrop to the heated gasses lift off the surface. Here’s an animated GIF of images of the prominence as it erupted on Sunday on the east limb over a 12 hour period.

A prominence lifts off the East limb  in timelapse animated GIF of AIA 304 from SDO
A prominence lifts off the East limb in timelapse animated GIF of AIA 304 from SDO

It is unlikely this feature will have any impact on Earth. If it did produce a CME during the eruption, it would be well to the East of the Earth-Sun line.

A Growing Beta Active Region

Active Region 2526 has been increasing in size (from 120MH to 200MH) as it rotates toward center disk. Tonight, SWPC upgraded the magnetic classification from Alpha to Beta. The changes to the region are minor but do increase the probability of flare activity slightly. Thus far, the active region has not produced much flare activity, but keep an eye on it, this could change.

Active Region 2526, now Classified Beta, in magnetogram
Active Region 2526, now Classified Beta, in magnetogram

A Pair of Coronal Holes

The most promising solar feature for aurora hunters is the coronal hole that was pointed at Earth yesterday. On it’s previous pass, this coronal hole was a complex of three separate holes and lead to a prolonged period of enhanced solar wind, several periods of south-oriented Bz and a phenomenal display of Aurora. The coronal hole structure has degraded since the last rotation and is now comprised of a pair of medium sized coronal holes. Until today, when the second hole emerged to the NE of the first, this single coronal hole might have produced a short period of elevated solar wind. Now that it is a pair, Earth could experience couple days of slightly elevated soalr wind. Even better news for aurora hunters is that active region 2526 is directly between these two coronal holes, so if it does flare and produce a CME, the plasma will be accelerated by the elevated wind speed. Again, these are worth keeping an eye on the next couple days.

Two coronal hole in this AIA 211 image with active region 2526 directly between them
Two coronal hole in this AIA 211 image with active region 2526 directly between them

Happy Hunting!

One Year Anniversary of St. Paddy’s Day Aurora 2016

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Northern Lights Now – St. Patrick’s Day, March 17, falls on a Thursday this year providing the perfect Throwback Thursday to last year, when the strongest Aurora storm of the current solar cycle arrived at Earth. Aurora hunters, including Dan Russell and this author, the Burlington VT based founders of NLN, were treated to hours on end of wondrous dancing lights. Dan and I captured these purple pillars with a camera on a tripod setup on the frozen ice of Lake Champlain:

Purple Aurora Pillars
Aurora glow and purple pillars visible in NLN’s photograph from St. Patrick’s Day Aurora Storm 2015

The storm that produced this aurora was only predicted to be 12-18 hours of G1 storming prompted by a filament eruption followed by a long duration C9 solar flare. Both events launched CMEs towards Earth, and as they arrived it became clear they were oriented just right for a long duration and very strong show. The plasma cloud from the filament and the CME from the flare arrived almost in unison. This sent the Bz strongly south by as much as 23nT. Bz remained south for over 24 hours, and the solar wind speeds increased to over 600km/s. By the time the storm subsided, there were two full days of G1+ activity including periods of G4:

Two full days of G1 storming reflected in the KP 3-hour chart from Boulder
Two full days of G1 storming reflected in the KP 3-hour chart from Boulder

This was not an easy storm to photograph in Vermont. The forecast for the evening did not look promising from the start. It was supposed to be cloudy all day and through the night on March 17 and it was cold! It was 24 degrees, and the wind was howling at 20 with gusts to 35mph (no exaggeration!) The northern lights activity was predicted to die down as the sun set over Lake Champlain, so at best there might only be a short window. As the afternoon waned, two factors came together nicely – first the storm was clearly stronger than expected, second there were hints in the very short term forecast that there could be a window where the clouds broke apart between sunset and about 9:30.

Cloudcover for St Paddy's day storm 2015 shows hints of clear skies for  Lake Champlain
Cloudcover for St Paddy’s day storm 2015 shows hints of clear skies for Lake Champlain

The batteries were charged, so we set up the cameras. This was a particularly cold March in Northern New England after a particularly cold winter. Lake Champlain and Mallott’s bay still had a thick layer of ice. We set the camera up pointed North and watched as a break in the clouds moved from West to East. When the sky cleared aurora were visible to the naked eye and we captured the image at the top of this post. There was a 45 minute window before the clouds rolled back in. Every Aurora hunter knows that feeling when the night is over because the clouds roll in. Dan and I went inside to warm up and to start processing images. While we sat inside, a squall came through dumping over an inch of snow.

At midnight, just as it was time to turn in, we looked out the window and it was crystal clear and there was red aurora in the sky to the North visible to the naked eye. We set the cameras up and let the intervalometer snap 5 second exposures on our Fujifilm X-T1 and Rokinon 12mm f/2.0 cameras. Did I mention it was cold? Now that it had snowed, the north wind was creating a “ground blizzard” as it picked up the freshly fallen snow and blew it across the lake at 20 mph. Here’s what Dan and I looked like, huddled behind a raised block of ice acting as a wind barrier, as we waited for the second round of photos at 1:00am.

Charles and Dan Shelter from the wind while time lapse camera snaps photos
Charles and Dan Shelter from the wind while time lapse camera snaps photos

It was worth it! At the end we had this time lapse that shows both the 8:30-9:30pm and 12:30-1:30am periods where the sky was clear. You can see the ice on the lake, and watch the clouds roll in during the first section, then in the second see one of the most amazing displays of Red, Green and Purple we’ve been lucky enough to experience.

Happy Hunting!